By J. Dzimba
South Africa's Apartheid regime observed Zimbabwean independence and black majority rule in 1980 as a tremendous hazard to its pursuits, safeguard and local hegemony. John Dzimba explains how and why Pretoria sought to destabilise Zimbabwe and different entrance line states, reading the successes and screw ups of destabilisation opposed to Zimbabwe's monetary and political vulnerabilities and tried responses. He exhibits why P.W. Botha's hindrance ridden regime needed to drop the coverage in 1989.
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Extra resources for South Africa’s Destabilisation of Zimbabwe, 1980–89
But this was used mainly on Lesotho, taking into consideration its geographic position and the fact that its economic dependence on imported supplies of food and other essential goods from South Africa made it very vulnerable. Throughout much of 1981, Pretoria used the technique of economic blockade to coerce the Lesotho government to change its policies towards South African refugees and the liberation movement. In 1984 South Africa used the same method again, which compelled Lesotho to expel the ANC refugees from Lesotho.
Firstly, the decision to intervene in Angola proved highly divisive within the South African government. 69 The decision split the government into the two camps of the so-called 'hawks' (defence and SADF establishment) and 'doves' (BOSS and Foreign Affairs). BOSS, the architect of Vorster's detente70 initiative, and, to a lesser degree Foreign Affairs Hilgard Muller, opposed the military option and favoured, instead, a diplomatic solution (with covert coercive diplomacy). W. Botha and the SADF wanted the military option and argued that forceful military action was the only viable strategy of deterrence.
57 They believed that, by intensifying the armed struggle, they would be forcing a situation whereby the minority governments in Rhodesia and South Africa would be forced to sue for peace and agree to majority rule. They began to believe that it was possible to gain independence. The Smith regime in Rhodesia was particularly affected by the fall of Portuguese rule in Africa. Hitherto much of Rhodesia's international trade had gone through Mozambique. With Mozambique independent, it was likely that Mozambican routes and ports would be closed to it, if and when the former decided to impose economic sanctions.