By K. T. Collington (auth.), A. Whelan, J. P. Goff (eds.)
Because of the sheer measurement and scope of the plastics undefined, the identify advancements in Plastics expertise now covers an exceptionally wide selection of topics or themes. No unmarried quantity can survey the full box in any intensity and what follows is, as a result, a chain of chapters on chosen subject matters. the subjects have been chosen through us, the editors, as a result of their speedy relevance to the plastics undefined. while one considers the developments of the plastics processing equipment (in phrases of its pace of operation and conciseness of control), it was once felt that a number of chapters could be incorporated which on the topic of the categories of keep watch over structures used and the right kind utilization of hydraulics. the significance of utilizing mobile, rubber-modified and engineering-type plastics has had an enormous impression at the plastics and hence a bankruptcy on each one of those topics has been integrated. the 2 final chapters are at the characterisation and behavior of polymer buildings, either matters back being of present educational or business curiosity. all the contributions was once written by way of a consultant in that box and to all of them, we, the editors, expand our heartfelt thank you, as writing a contribution for a booklet corresponding to this, whereas doing a full-time activity, isn't any effortless task.
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Additional info for Developments in Plastics Technology—4
3 Speciality Expansion Systems A recent, interesting area of development covering all the above types of chemical expansion systems is the increasing use of both melt concentrates and liquid dispersions. Preliminary examination of the basis for these developments indicates a reduction in the handling of fine powders, reducing environmental risks to operatives. g. increased gas retention due to the carrier system acting as a cell nucleator. g. a multi-functional 23 PROCESSING OF CELLULAR THERMOPLASTICS TABLE 6 HIGH-TEMPERATURE EXPANSION SYSTEMS Type Celogen a CB Celogena BH Celogena RA Celogen a HT 550 Chemical composition Patented hydrazine Operating Gas temperature yield range eC) (cm3 g-l) Comment 17(}-220 200 210-220 154 220-245 140 250-310 155 No ammonia evolved Genitron b Patented composition AF100 220-250 125 No ammonia evolved Expandex c 5-Phenyltetrazole 5PT 250-280 200 Low ammonia content Kemtecd 300 Kemtecd 500 Kemtecd 550 155-230 157 290-320 NA 290-320 NA I 4,4' -Oxybis(benzenesulphonyl semi carbazide) p-Toluene sulphonylsemicarbazide Patented hydrazide Patented compounds stated to be, 'neutral aromatic organics' NA, data not Trade mark b Trade mark Trade mark d Trade mark a C No ammonia evolved No ammonia evolved No ammonia evolved available.
These are commercially available in Western Europe, Asia and North America and are mainly produced using the singlestage expansion technique utilising chemical expansion systems, although the use of physical expansion techniques is reported. 41 Variations on the single stage are also apparent; such modification involves the heating of a pre-form at 140-170°C in a press uri sed vessel (gas pressure 50-150 psi (0'41·0 MN m - 2)) with expansion occurring on release of the gas pressure. 42 Considerable latitude in the formulation of a suitable plastisol or plastigel exists.
Examples include high-temperature or fully aromatic polymers such as poly(phenylene sulfide), aromatic polyesters and polyamides, polyimides and poly(arylether ether ketone), conducting polymers such as polyacetylene, polypyrrole, polythienylene and polymeric bridged macrocyclic transitionmetal complexes, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, various fluoropolymers and polymers based on new concepts such as interpenetrating network polymers and liquid-crystalline polymers. Applications of polymers have been widely diversified in many industrial and practical fields and a number of speciality polymers have been developed to meet special needs.