Criminology: the Key Concepts (Routledge Key Guides) by Martin O'Brien

By Martin O'Brien

Criminology: the major recommendations is an authoritative and entire examine advisor and reference source that may take you thru the entire ideas, techniques, matters and associations primary to the learn of crime in modern society. issues coated during this effortless to take advantage of A-Z advisor contain: policing, sentencing and the justice process different types of crime, together with company crime, cybercrime, intercourse and hate crimes feminist, marxist and cultural ways to criminology terrorism, nation crime, warfare crimes and human rights social concerns comparable to anti-social behaviour, family violence and pornography felony psychology and deviance totally cross-referenced, with huge feedback for extra studying and in-depth learn of the subjects mentioned, this is often a vital reference consultant for college kids of Criminology in any respect degrees.

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Thus, for example, Shaw and McKay (1942) used the disorganisation concept to explain the distinctive spatial pattern in the referral records of Chicago’s juvenile court system, which showed that delinquency rates were significantly higher in Zone II and remained so even over long periods of time. The Chicago School’s ecological approach was a highly original and daring perspective on the causes of crime and deviance. At the time, it was commonplace to either locate the causes of offending within individuals, or to see particular ethnic groups as inherently criminal.

First, and most obviously, it was apparent that by no means all offenders in fact had identifiable atavistic traits. This presented a problem for Lombroso, and over time he posited an ever-greater array of criminal sub-types whose behaviour could not be attributed to atavism in any obvious way (these included the alcoholic criminal, the insane criminal, the ‘pseudo’ or accidental criminal, ‘criminaloids’ who are influenced by environmental factors, and ‘habitual’ criminals whose offending resulted from poor education and weak parenting).

See also: administrative criminology; cultural criminology; hedonism; positivist criminology; punishment; rational choice; routine activity theories; social control Further reading: Beccaria (1995); Roshier (1989) COMMUNITY A term that is very widely used across the social sciences (not to mention in public and political discussion) yet is often ill defined or defined in widely varying ways. At its most fundamental the concept denotes a social group united by some feature or other held in common.

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