By American Water Works Association
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Additional info for Concrete pressure pipe
EQUAmONS AND VARIABLES The critical time period Tcfor a piping system is the time required for a transient wave to travel in the piping system to a point of reflection and return to the point of origin. Tc may be determined from T, = 2L/a (4-1) Where: T, = L = a = critical time period, in seconds the distance that a transient wave travels in the piping system between its origin and reflection point, in feet wave speed, in feet per second The termcritical period is used because the change in flow velocity, which occurs in a time period equal to or less than T,,will cause the maximum pressure rise for a particular surge event.
NEGATIVE PRESSURES The conditions that produce pressure rises from water hammer also cause a reduction in pipeline pressure when the pressure wave reflects at a boundary. These pressure reductions, if large. enough in magnitude, will result in negative pressures in all or part of the piping system. However, because of the inherent structuralqualities of the concrete pipe wall, concrete pressure pipe does not collapse fi-om negative pressures and does not require the special design considerations necessary t o guard flexible pipe against collapse as a result of negative pressures.
Pumps; gal Graphical Treatment. In Proc. of the lnst. Mech. , 136945. ChaundhT, M*G. 1979. &died Transients. VanNostrand Company. G. 1955. Surge-Wave Velocity - Concrete Pressure Pipe. Paper presented at the ASME Annual Meeting in Chicago, Ill. L. 1948. PracticalAspects of Water Jour. AWWA, 40(6):599605. 1951. Water Hammer Control. Jour. AWWA, 43(12):985-1,000. Parmakian, J. 1963. WaterHammer Analysis. New York: Dover Publications. R. 1951. Hydraulic Transients (Engineering Societies Monographs).