Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application by J. Shore

By J. Shore

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Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1994). D R Karsa, J M Goody and P J Donnelly, Surfactants applications directory (Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1991). M R Porter and M Porter, Recent developments in the technology of surfactants (Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1991). K Y Lai, Liquid detergents (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996). M J Rosen, Surfactants and interfacial phenomena, 2nd Edn. (New York: Wiley, 1989). H W Stache, Anionic surfactants: organic chemistry (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1995).

There are, however, some observed cases of apparently anomalous behaviour of dyes with respect to electrolytes that cannot be explained by ionic interactions alone. pmd 497 15/11/02, 15:44 498 CLASSIFICATION OF DYEING AND PRINTING AUXILIARIES BY FUNCTION The fact is, ionic interaction between dyes, fibres and electrolytes is only part of the story. As Yang [1] has pointed out, hydrophobic interactions also need to be taken into consideration. Whilst this has been accepted for many years in relation to dye–fibre interactions, the extension of the concept to interactions involving neutral electrolytes is novel.

This is one of the main reasons why polyphosphate sequestrants are used much less extensively than the more versatile and stable aminopolycarboxylates. 18 Sodium tripolyphosphate Sodium polyphosphate A structural compromise between these two types of compound can also give products with sequestering properties, although they are phosphonates rather than phosphates, since they contain C–P rather than C–O–P linkages. 25 HEDP PBTC 510 C O C P CH2 OH OH 15/11/02, 15:44 P OH OH SEQUESTERING AGENTS 511 The consumption of these phosphonates in textile processing is small in relation to that of the aminopolycarboxylates; they are mainly used in detergent formulations [21,22] as sodium, potassium, ammonium or alkanolamine salts.

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