By A. Fares, A. El-Kadi
Coastal watersheds vary from others via their targeted positive factors, includingproximity to the sea, climate and rainfall styles, subsurface features,and land covers. Land use adjustments and competing wishes for invaluable water and land assets are special to such watersheds. floor water is a valued source of vital financial, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic value. Streams offer irrigation water and will be the most resource of consuming water in a few locations. Streams additionally offer vital habitats for plenty of precise local species. Water caliber of receiving waters, resembling estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, are negatively impacted by means of circulate chemical, organic, and sediments. Coastal groundwater aquifers are negatively suffering from land use alterations, resulting in lowered recharge and elevated chemical use, and probability of saltwater intrusion. restricted water assets and matters concerning water caliber necessitate the necessity for bestmanagement practices.
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Extra resources for Coastal Watershed Management (Progress in Water Resources)
8 Specific environmental problems in coastal watersheds Saltwater intrusion is a natural process influenced by humans; it occurs in almost all coastal aquifers. Saltwater intrusion is the movement of salt water into freshwater resources, such as a groundwater aquifer or a freshwater marsh. This intrusion Hydrological Modeling of Small Coastal Watersheds 23 may occur as the result of a natural process like a storm surge from a hurricane. For freshwater, more often it results from human activities such as construction of navigation channels or oil field canals.
There are several versions of SWAT available, and the recent one is SWAT2000 that includes bacteria transport, Green–Ampt infiltration, the Muskingum routing method, a weather generator, and the SCS curve number for runoff estimation. For potential evapotranspiration calculations, users have options between Penman– Monteith, Priestley–Taylor, and Hargreaves methods. Event-based erosion caused by rainfall and runoff is modeled using a modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM): This is a distributed, physically based, and continuous simulation watershed and field-scale model.
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