By L. A. Utracki
This is often half 1 of a two-part set. half 2 ISBN is 1859574823
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Extra info for Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites Volume 1
In the early 1950s, for hydrophobic applications clay started to be intercalated with quaternary alkonium chlorides. For example, fatty quatenary alkonium chlorides were used, viz. 0% C 20 alkyl groups). The organoclays, commercialised by NL Industries as Bentone™, were found useful for thickening lubricating greases, oil-based muds, packer fluids and paint-varnish-lacquer removers [Hauser, 1950; Jordan, 1950]. Soon, the process was described in the textbooks [Grim, 1968]. , 1950]. The patent describes MMT intercalation using diverse onium compounds, viz.
International Journal of Nanoscience, World Scientific, Singapore, 2002. 4. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1999. 5. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. B, Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Processing, Measurement and Phenomena, Published for the American Vacuum Society by the American Institute of Physics, 1991. 6. Lab on a Chip, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2001. 7. Materials Science & Engineering. C, Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999.
Correspondingly, the calculated average number of platelets in the stack varied from 3 to 1, hence in chloroform the organoclay was fully exfoliated. 8 nm. Within this range TEM may be used to determine the extent of intercalation/exfoliation. However, TEM also offers a direct method for confirming the XRD data (micrograph in Figure 4(a)) and with growing frequency it is being used at low magnification (micrograph in Figure 4(b)) to check on the uniformity (or lack) of clay stack dispersion in polymeric matrix.