By Sabu Thomas, Yves Grohens, P. Jyotishkumar
Filling the distance for a reference devoted to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this booklet presents accomplished, systematic assurance in a one-stop, two-volume source for all these operating within the field.
Leading researchers from and academia, in addition to from executive and personal learn associations worldwide summarize fresh technical advances in chapters dedicated to their person contributions. In so doing, they research quite a lot of glossy characterization strategies, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal research, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. those tools are in comparison with one another to aid in picking out the simplest answer for either primary and utilized difficulties, being attentive to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, either in blends regarding copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, section separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends also are mentioned in mild of recent insights regarding the nanoscopic scale. eventually, the authors aspect the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, in addition to the effect of processing at the iteration of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of those morphologies at the homes of blends. sizzling subject matters resembling compatibilization via nanoparticles, miscibility of latest biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends also are addressed.
With its application-oriented process, handpicked collection of themes and specialist participants, this can be an excellent survey for an individual keen on the sphere of polymer blends for complicated technologies.
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Extra info for Characterization of Polymer Blends: Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
8) can be simpliﬁed to: 1 1 DHm ¼ n0 w1 w2 zw12 À =2 n0 w1 w2 zw 11 À =2 n0 w1 w2 zw 22 ð2:9Þ The simpliﬁcation step from Eq. 8) to Eq. 9 eliminates the contributions due to the autoassociation contacts occurring in the mixture (second and third terms in the right-hand side of Eq. 8)) with identical terms arising from the pure components. Therefore, only the contacts that are actually modiﬁed (broken or formed) contribute to DHm in Eq. 9); and the enthalpy of mixing is the energetic balance corresponding to the process of breaking identical amounts of 1–1 and 2–2 contacts and replacing them by 1–2 contacts [2–5].
2 Molecular Size and Entropy Historically, the simplest miscible system has been the mixture of ideal gases, consisting on noninteracting point particles. This system can be analyzed using simple arguments based on classical thermodynamics . The enthalpy of mixing is zero (DHm ¼ 0) and the entropy of mixing (DSm) is given by: DSm ¼ ÀRðn1 ln x 1 þ n2 ln x 2 Þ ð2:3Þ where ni is the number of moles of the i-th component, xi is the molar fraction, and R is the ideal gas constant . 3) also works properly for mixtures of nonpolar solvents of similar molecular volume, and is considered the classical expression for the entropy of mixing of ideal solutions .
3) can actually be derived from the statistical thermodynamic analysis of a lattice model randomly ﬁlled with spheres of identical size [4,5]. In addition, in an ideal solution the average strength of the intermolecular interactions between the components of the mixture is identical to the average strength of the interactions occurring between the pure components . Therefore, the enthalpy of mixing in these systems is zero (DHm ¼ 0) and miscibility arises from the entropic contribution to the free energy of mixing (DGm ¼ ÀTDSm).