Burguesía y capitalismo en Monterrey, 1850-1910 by Mario Cerutti

By Mario Cerutti

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However, there is a large disconnect between this popular perception and historical evidence. Pancho Villa was a teetotaler who spearheaded alcohol prohibition in Mexico. So why is Pancho Villa strongly associated with tequila? S. media. By the early part of the twentieth century, tequila was well positioned to become Mexico’s national spirit. Unlike pulque or other types of Â�mezcal 4 4 â•…â•… I N T O X I C A T I N G I C O N S Tequila bottle in the image of Pancho Villa. Photo by Gwyn Fisher. F I G U R E 4 .

56 Like other exotic foodstuffs, such as corn and cacao, pulque was a common artistic subject through which racial hierarchies were solidified. 58 For example, José Obregón’s 1869 painting, The Discovery of Pulque, depicts a pre-Hispanic legend in which King Tecpancaltzin is presented with a bowl of newly discovered pulque by Xochítl, a young peasant woman (see Figure 2). Accompanied (presumably) by her parents and trailed by a woman carrying an agave plant (standing on the far left), the scene metaphorically illustrates the relationship among nature, culture, and order within European aesthetic conventions.

Once the American Civil War ended in 1865, the United States sent supplies to help the republican army and ordered the French to remove their forces from Mexico. By the end of 1867, the French withdrew their troops, the republic was restored, and President Juárez returned to power. Following this period of political crisis, commercial hacendados, agro-exporters, and manufacturers continued to hold the vast majority P U L Q U E , M E Z C A L , A N D T E Q U I L A â•…â•… 3 7 of power in Mexico. Together, these industrial-focused groups sought to associate themselves with trade and foreign capital.

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