Britain's Naval and Political Reaction to the Illegal by Freddy Liebreich

By Freddy Liebreich

This publication presents an enormous shift within the research of Britain's coverage in the direction of the unlawful postwar Jewish immigration into Palestine. It charts the improvement of Britain's reaction to Zionist immigration, from the preliminary sympathy, as embodied within the Balfour assertion, via makes an attempt at blockade, refoulement and eventually disengagement.The ebook exposes transformations in coverage pursued via the nice departments of nation just like the international, Colonial and warfare workplaces and their felony advisors, and people carried out via the Admiralty. The booklet argues that the eventual failure of Britain's immigration coverage used to be inevitable in view of the hostility proven by means of many eu international locations, and the United States, in the direction of Britain's ambition to maintain her place within the center East.

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In the final of four versions of the statement on the Jews in Nostra aetate, drafted after almost five years of discussions, the participating cardinals thus managed to avoid any expression of remorse for the negative attitudes and consequent injustices of the past. For his efforts in fighting for a meaningful Nostra aetate, Cardinal Bea was attacked as an enemy of the Church, a heretic, as having tricked Pope John XXIII and as having hatched a plot against the Catholic Church. The debate on the exculpation of the Jews from guilt for the cruxifixion never came to a positive issue, not even in view of the ruthless policy of extermination, inflicted upon millions of Jews by the Nazis.

At least a proportion of the large number of Jews who, disturbingly from the British viewpoint, demanded a return to Zion, were perceived to be motivated less by a full measure of enthusiasm, than simply by the absence of viable places of settlement. The attempts by would-be illegal immigrants, mainly from Eastern Europe, to effect clandestine landings on the coast of Palestine were, therefore, believed to result to a large extent from lack of opportunity to go elsewhere, rather than from any presumed passion for the cessation of exile and for a return to the Promised Land.

The British authorities hoped that in 1945–6 most Jewish survivors living in Europe saw Palestine only as a refuge of last resort, while the reasons for coming to Palestine were essentially irrational, based as they were mainly on Zionist machinations and propaganda. In addition the British hoped that an absence or weakness of national identity would be generated in the Yishuv, this sentiment would be reinforced by the lack of security and that these factors would sooner or later lead to an increase in Jewish emigration from Palestine.

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