By István Mayer
While glossy computational tools delivers us with the wave functionality of a molecule in numerical shape, such a lot computing device courses lack the delicate instruments had to extract chemical thoughts from those wave features. Saving researchers titanic time and capability confusion, this quantity collects and organizes these tested instruments at the moment scattered during the literature and info their software. It offers instant entry for these desiring to calculate such serious elements as bond order and valence indices, and atomic and diatomic contributions to molecular strength. assisting fabric is out there for obtain from the authors' continuously up-to-date website.
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Additional resources for Bond orders and energy components: extracting chemical information from molecular wave functions
From the formal point of view, it is important to stress that Mulliken’s overlap population is the simplest quantity that is linear in the interatomic D-matrix elements and has the correct rotational–hybridizational invariance. 3 L¨owdin charges and the problem of rotational invariance One often turns to a L¨owdin-orthogonalized basis set permitting to avoid the complications caused by the overlap and to keep at the same time the connection with the original (overlapping) AO basis: the orthonormalized functions obtained by using L¨owdin’s “symmetric orthogonalization”  are those which are the closest in least-square sense to the original (overlapping) basis [5,35].
18): both S−1 and L are Hermitian but their product is usually not. In other words, Hermitian operators are represented by non-Hermitian matrices in non-orthogonal basis sets. However, for these non-Hermitian matrices the eigenvalue equations of type Tqi = εi qi have all the properties which are characteristic of Hermitian matrices in orthonormalized basis sets: the eigenvalues are real and the eigenvectors form an orthogonal set spanning the whole linear space defined by the original basis orbitals.
In the present case Lˆ = ̺ˆ , its integrals form matrix L = SPS, as discussed in case (iii) above. Then the transformation matrix T describing the effect of ̺ˆ in the non-orthogonal LCAO framework can be obtained by multiplying with S−1 from the left, yielding matrix T = PS, in full accord with that described under point (ii) above. A characteristic feature of non-orthogonal basis sets is that the matrix T describing a linear transformation induced by a Hermitian operator Lˆ is generally not Hermitian, as can be seen from Eq.