By Yoshiharu Doi and Kazuhiko Fukuda (Eds.)
Long ago 25 years, plastic items have won common use not just in meals, garments and shield, but in addition within the transportation, development, scientific and rest industries. while formerly artificial plastics have been constructed as sturdy alternative items, expanding drawback for the worldwide surroundings and sturdy waste administration has led to an pressing call for for biodegradable plastics. the most issues of the 3rd foreign clinical Workshop have been as follows: Biodegradation of polymers and plastics; Environmental degradation of plastics; Synthesis and homes of recent biodegradable plastic fabrics; Biodegradation and morphologies of polymer blends; improvement of biodegradation try out tools; and Governmental coverage, legislation and criteria
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Extra info for Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers
F r o m municipal sev^age plants. Measured by total organic carbon. Random polymerization. Reprinted from Ref. . a polyether, PEG, shov^ed poor biodegradabilities. Copolymer E O / P O with an average molecular v^eight ( M n ) of approximately 1,500 w e r e degraded well, irrespective of E O / P O ratios, but the copolymer with a higher M n showed decreased biodegradability. T h e high biodegradability of dimethyl PEG, which includes an ester bond inside a molecule, was explained well by the easy hydrolysis of an ester bond: A n ester bond seems to be hydrolyzed first and then the resultant alcohol groups of PEG seem to be metabolized.
D. e. 4. 2. 1. 4000 2000 1000 400 300 Tetramer Dinner Monomer 10 Figure 1. GPC of degradation products of P E G 6000 by washed cells. Reprinted from Ref. [31. Table 3 Growth of PPG-utilizing Corynebacterium sp. N o . 7 on propylene glycol ( P G ) alkyl ethers. 2%) None PG " monomethyl " monoethyl " monobutyl " monomethyl acetate " monoethyl acetate DiPG monomethyl monoethyl T r i P G monomethyl 6 days at 2 8 Ϊ : with shaking. Reprinted from Ref. |3]. 26 28 Table 4. Growth of Corynebacterium sp.
_ I 2 2 , , 2 c COOH COOH COOH -Acetate C. 2 — C,H - C O O H COOH COOH • Malonate Malonate —^ CO^ CM — C H r - C H , COOH COOH f Acetate + Malonate Figure 7. T h e proposed metabolic pathway for P T C A . * Asymmetric carbon. Reprinted from Ref. . a, b 36 OH I - C H - C H « — CH-CH^ -CH-CH^-CH^-CH^ COOH COOH COOH, COOH 0 L π r - C H - C H ^ - C H = CH I I COOH COOH , - C H - C H . - C-CH^ COOH . ) COOH COOH I OH -CH-CH-COOH I . ) COOH Fig. 8. T h e proposed metabolic pathway for a head to head structure of P A .