By Robert N. Carrow
The advanced matters considering the administration of saline and sodic turfgrass soils are sufficient to perplex even the main skilled website supervisor — there is not any "silver bullet" modification, remedy, or grass for salinity administration. top administration Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: evaluation and Reclamation offers finished clinical rules and distinct, functional administration and review options for turfgrass and panorama websites. The authors use the easiest administration Practices (BMPs) proposal, thought of the gold-standard administration technique for any person environmental factor, because it is an entire atmosphere (holistic), science-based salinity administration strategy that permits all attainable administration thoughts to be thought of and carried out on a site-specific foundation. They determine BMP innovations, together with irrigation approach layout; irrigation scheduling and salinity leaching; chemical, actual, and organic amendments; cultivation; topdressing; soil amendment; sand-capping; floor and subsurface drainage thoughts; dietary practices; extra cultural practices; and ongoing tracking. The ebook provides rising demanding situations, know-how, and ideas that tackle integration of salinity administration into accomplished website environmental or sustainable administration structures, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional reasons, integration of geospatial and geostatistical strategies and expertise, and integration of recent sensor know-how into day-by-day administration paradigms. Outlining a holistic BMP process, the booklet accommodates clinical ideas and sensible administration thoughts and info particular salinity demanding situations and the good judgment in the back of every one BMP process for salinity administration, with an emphasis on genuine box difficulties. The booklet is formatted for versatile use, with stand-alone chapters that come with outlines for fast assessment of a subject matter for these requiring just a easy knowing in addition to in-depth discussions of the technology and sensible elements for these looking a extra rigorous remedy. It provides a unmarried resource for all of the details required to spot and deal with diversified forms of salinity stresses.
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Extra info for Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation
03 mm diameter). Water molecules are attracted to salt ions by adhesive forces in the water films near the salt ion surface and by cohesive forces in the outer water films. As soluble salt concentrations increase in the soil, osmotic potential becomes more negative, thereby reducing the availability of soil moisture for plant uptake. The final result of reduced soil water availability is salt-induced drought stress on the plant even when the soil may appear to be relatively moist or even within hours after the last irrigation cycle.
Salt movement into the rootzone from a naturally high saline water table or high tidal swells such as in coastal swamps or marshes. Sometimes, the coastal soils are sandy in nature and can be easily reclaimed by leaching. However, coastal marine clays or more fine-textured soils, especially if the clay type is an expansive/contraction 2:1 clay (with high CEC and very susceptible to Na-induced structure deterioration), can be very difficult if one wishes to remove accumulated total soluble salts and Na.
Fletcher, Environmental stewardship requires a successful plan: Can the turfgrass industry state one? USGA Green Section Record, 46 (2), 25–32, 2008. Basics of Salt-Affected Soils 13 pesticide, nutrient, and sediment management to protect our surface and subsurface waters has proven that this “environmental management plan” is the gold standard. Just as the BMP approach or philosophy was used for these three diverse environmental issues, it can be successfully applied to all environmental issues, including salinity, because of its basic underlying principles (Carrow and Duncan, 2008).