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The specific aim of behavioral embryology is to determine how the earliest stages of neural and behavioral development affect later stages of neurobehavioral ontogeny. From its inception in the modern era by Preyer, the tradition of behavioral embryology has remained broadly comparative. After a relatively long period of primarily descriptive-correlational studies, behavioral embryology seems now to be moving into an era of increasingly manipulative studies, aimed at testing particular hypotheses.
Nerve fiber growth pattern in chick embryo medulla expiants subjected to electrical field for 22 hours. Direction of current flow designated by arrow. Current densities (A-H) shown beneath each expiant. At the highest current density (A) (490) there is complete suppression of fiber outgrowth on the anode side (+ ) of the field. Except in zones of liquefaction (z), the majority of the fibers are reflected toward the cathode ( - ) side of the field. From Marsh & Beams (1946). INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL EMBRYOLOGY 23 the anode side of the field (shown in Fig.
In E. Tobach, L. R. Aronson, & E. ), The biopsychology of development. New York: Academic Press, 1971. Pp. 67-128. (b). -Y. Development of behavior in the duck embryo. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965,59, 183-188. , & Simner, M. L. Auditory versus visual flicker in directing the approach response of domestic chicks. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 67,58-63. Grier, J. , Counter, S. , & Shearer, W. M. Prenatal auditory imprinting in chickens. Science, 1967, 155, 1692-1693.