Aperçu général de la science comparative des langues by Louis Benloew

By Louis Benloew

The German-born philologist Louis Benloew (1818-1900) studied at Berlin, Leipzig and Göttingen ahead of settling in France. Aperçu général de l. a. technological know-how comparative des langues (first released in 1858) is his best-known paintings. during this moment variation of 1872, which include his personal additional learn at the Celtic languages, he makes use of the comparative learn of grammar and vocabulary to spot relationships among languages and to categorise them into households. now not all of his conclusions - in particular these connecting the so-called Japhetic (i.e. Indo-European) kin to the Semitic languages - are nonetheless approved, however the bold scope of his paintings and the variety of his world-wide comparisons supply an invaluable perception into the country of linguistic examine within the mid-nineteenth century.

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L't du present date d'uneepoque plus rfecente, puisqu'on ne le retrouveque rarement dans les autres langues de la mgme famille. i,siaSov, il fautbien reconnaitre que le present et Taoriste n'etaient pas toujours aussi nellement figurds dans la conjugaison grecque, qu'ils le sont aujourd'hui, et que les formes les plus simples, et partant les plus anciennes, se rencontrenl plutol dans Taoriste que dans le present. (2)LesArabes d'aujourd'hui expriment le present, en mettant d'abord le verbe au futur ou au participe, et en le faisant preceder du petit mot ra (voici) suivi du pronom personnel.

Signifie proprement eloigne du pere : car of et off (loin de) sont identiques. ), qui vient du verbe allemand ziehen, tirer, tendre. Toutes les racines sont d'origine verbale ou pronominale, quand elles ne sont pas l'un et l'autre a la fois; et les formes souvent — 25 — si e'courte'es des particules, propositions et adverbes, qui en descendent, s'expliquent par l'effort qu'a fait la langue de les adapter au sens plus general qu'elle vient de leur donner, a la place moins large qu'elles tiennent dans la phrase.

Evidemment, cela (1) Ges6nius, Grande gramm. hebraique, p, 318 et suiv. oppant, ce qui est encore futur, on congoit que les Semites ne se soient servis du present que pour marquer la dure"e d'uneaclion, cequ'ils reussissaienl afairede tout temps en placjant le pronom personnel a cote" du participe (2). Les Hebreux exprimaien t le subjonctif el l'optatif par de le"geres modifications du futur, et, en faisant pr£c6der ce dernier du vav conversif, ils indiquaient ce qu'on appelle l'imparfait. Ces modifications prirent un caractere plus accentue" dans l'arabe, ou l'on distingue les trois formes du futur : jaktola,jaktol, jactolan (5).

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