Alternatives for Landmine Detection by Jacqueline A. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood

By Jacqueline A. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood

Analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of latest applied sciences in landmine detection and gives ideas for making improvements to and dashing up the method.

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Second, GPR is a mature technology, with a long performance history from other applications. A fielded Army system (HSTAMIDS) combining GPR with EMI for mine detection already exists and is scheduled for production in 2003. Finally, GPR can be made lightweight and easy to operate, and it scans at a rate comparable to that of an EMI system. Limitations. Natural subsurface inhomogeneities (such as roots, rocks, and water pockets) can cause the GPR to register return signals that resemble those of landmines and thus are a source of false alarms.

Army) ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratories OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PD Probability of detection PFA Probability of false alarm PIN Positive-intrinsic-negative PM Photo-multiplier ppb Parts per billion ppq Parts per quadrillion ppm Parts per million Abbreviations xxix ppt Parts per trillion PY Person year QM Quantum Magnetics R&D Research and development RDX Royal demolition explosive [Cyclotrimethylenenitramine] REMIDS Remote Minefield Detection System REST Remote Explosive Scent Tracing RF Radio frequency RFI Radio frequency interference ROC Receiver operating characteristic ROM Rough order of magnitude rpm Revolutions per minute S&TPI Science and Technology Policy Institute SAR Synthetic aperture radar SCR Signal-to-clutter ratio SERRS Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy SIT Stevens Institute of Technology SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNR Signal-to-noise ratio SPIE International Society for Optical Engineering STAMIDS Standoff Minefield Detection System SWIR Short-wave infrared SwRI Southwest Research Institute T Tesla TNA Thermal neutron analysis xxx Alternatives for Landmine Detection TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNT Trinitrotoluene TOF Time of flight UF University of Florida UHF Ultra-high frequency UM University of Montana UN United Nations UWB Ultra-wide band UXO Unexploded ordnance VMMD Vehicle-Mounted Mine Detector VNIR Visible/near infrared WES Waterways Experimental Station XMIS X-ray mine imaging system Chapter One INTRODUCTION This report assesses innovative technologies for detecting antipersonnel mines at close range.

These methods are attractive because they do not involve physical contact and can be used from a safe standoff distance. They are lightweight and are effective at scanning wide areas relatively quickly. When deployed from airborne platforms, they are particu- 26 Alternatives for Landmine Detection larly effective for detecting surface mines. Collecting and processing the signals temporally (as opposed to in “snapshots”) tends to improve performance by tracking diurnal cycles. Limitations. The methods, particularly thermal imaging, have been used in several prototype multisensor systems, but extreme variability in performance as a function of dynamic environmental characteristics has precluded their use for close-in detection and accurate identification of mine locations.

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