A Configurational Model of Matter by G. V. Samsonov

By G. V. Samsonov

The booklet we're featuring to American and different English­ talking readers is a evaluate of the paintings at the electron struc­ ture of parts, alloys, and compounds, which used to be begun again within the fifties. This paintings steadily grew right into a process of principles at the electron constitution of condensed subject that's referred to now because the configurational version. This version is predicated at the assumption of the preferential formation of the main solid configurations of the localized va­ lence electrons in condensed subject. The lifestyles of those strong configurations and the trade of electrons with the de­ localized (collective-state) subsystem determines these prop­ erties that are relating to the electron constitution. The conclu­ sions that are drawn from the functions of the configura­ tional version are just qualitative yet they clarify relatively in actual fact the character of assorted houses of condensed topic, and they're precious within the look for fabrics with designated homes. the yankee version has been corrected and supplemented in lots of minor respects. furthermore, the chance was once taken to revise completely the part at the basics of the configura­ tional version within the gentle of the newest theoretical advancements. different components of the booklet were shortened to cast off fabric which isn't of basic importance or has no longer but been de­ veloped sufficiently fully.

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In the standard band theory, it is difficult to forecast the changes in the electron structure and the properties of metals which should result from the thermal excitation of electrons from the Fermi level. This is the consequence of the indeterminacy of the relative positions and the widths of the sand d bands, and of the relative insensitivity of the Fermi distribution to changes in the temperature. * On the other • The results of recent fundamental calculations of the electron energy spectra of the transition metals at high temperatures and pressures [476J are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the configurational model.

The binding forces in these metals are primarily due to the s electrons. The reduction in the energy stability of the s states on going from copper to gold is accompanied by a fall in Young's modulus and other characteristics governed by the low-temperature strength of the bonds. The metals belonging to the zinc subgroup are formed from atoms with d 10s 2 valence shells, which are modified in the condensed state primarily as a result of the excitation of the s2 configurations and the resultant formation of a high density of the antibonding delocalized electrons.

Since the statistical weight of the d 5 configurations in hafnium is 55% and that in vanadium 63%, we may assume that the bcc structure becomes stable when the statistical weight of the d 5 states reaches about 60%. This has recently been confirmed by the results of an x-ray spectroscopic investigation of the valence electron distribution in f3 -Zr at T ::::J 1500"1(, carried out by M. I. Korsunskii and Ya. E. Genkin. , the localization increases with increasing temperature and the statistical weight of the d S configurations in f3 -Zr is of the order of 66 0/00 No data are available on the localized valence electrons in manganese.

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